Retinal Detachment And Surgery

What is Retina?

Retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inner wall of the eye. It triggers nerve impulses which are carried forward by the optic nerves to the brain where images are created. In short , the retina processes a picture from the focused light, and the brain is left to decide what the picture is.

What is Retinal Detachment?

Retinal detachment is the separation of the retina from the tissues around it. It can lead to blindness, if its not repaired by surgery ,in time. It usually occurs when there is a tear in the retina,and the fluid from within the eye passes through this tear, separating the retina from its underlying tissue causing retinal detachment.

Symptoms Of Retinal Detachment

Flashes of light- the patients have reported to see sudden , brief lightening streaks , in the outer corners of the eye.
Little floaters described by patients as spots, strands, or little flies are also sighted in cases of retinal detachment.
Darkening of your peripheral (side) vision or clouding of a portion of your vision
Anyone experiencing any of these symptoms should visit an ophthalmologist immediately. He would dilate your eyes and examine the rate of the tear, and check for detachment.
Retinal surgery maybe required.
 
Retinal Surgery
Retinal detachment can be fixed through various types of surgeries, depending upon the the extent of the damage.
Initial tears or retinal holes can be treated with Laser Therapy or Cryotherapy.
Cryotherapy, freezes the progression of the detachment.

Once a detachment has been detected, the three types of surgery that are done are Scleral buckling, Pneumatic retinoscope, and Vitrectomy.

Scleral Buckling

This has been the standard treatment for retinal detachment . The surgeon identifies the holes or tears either through the operating microscope or a focusing headlight .The hole or tear is then sealed, either with diathermy , a cryoprobe , or a laser. A scleral buckle, which is made of silicone, plastic, or sponge, is then sewn to the outer wall of the eye. The buckle is like a belt around the eye. It compresses the eye , so that the hole is pushed back against the outer scleral wall of the eye, now indented by the buckle.
Next, a small instrument is placed into the eye to remove the vitreous, a gel-like substance that fills the center of the eye and helps the eye maintain a round shape. During the healing process, the eye makes fluid that gradually replaces the gas and fills the eye. A small gas bubble in placed in the cavity to keep the hole in position against the buckle until scarring has taken place.of the hole. In the healing process the eye fluid replaces this gas bubble.
With all of these procedures, either laser or cryoscope is used to “weld” the retina back in place.

Pneumatic Aga Again,

Here again laser or cryotherapy is used to seal the hole or tear. The surgeon then injects a gas bubble directly inside the vitreous cavity of the eye to push the detached retina against the back outer wall of the eye  The gas bubble initially expands and then disappears in time.

Vitrectomy.

This kind of surgery is done in cases of complicated or severe retinal detachments.
Small openings are made through the sclera to allow positioning of a fiberoptic light, a cutting source  and a delicate forceps. The vitreous gel of the eye is removed and replaced with a gas to refill the eye and reposition the retina. A scleral buckle may also be used in vitrectomy.

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